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Default Dead Trees

http://www.thebostonchannel.com/prin...83/detail.html
Quote:
BROOKLINE, Mass. -- In the middle of a state budget crisis, Team 5 Investigates found cities and towns all over Massachusetts spending millions of taxpayer dollars on a problem they'll never be able to fix.

Natural gas leaks can kill trees by displacing oxygen in the soil and drying out their roots, NewsCenter 5's Sean Kelly reported Thursday.

"We've detected thousands of leaks in the communities that we're working in," said Bob Ackley, co-founder of the Massachusetts Public Shade Tree Trust.
http://helenair.com/news/state-and-r...cc4c03286.html
Get ready for fiery summer in Montana, governor warns

Quote:
With more than five million acres of beetle-killed trees in the forests and little more than half its typical snow pack, Montana is staring down the barrel of a potentially devastating fire season, a new report says.
Quote:
“Don’t expect the government to bail you out,” Schweitzer said after a news conference during which he unveiled his report, called “The Potential for Drought in Montana.”
http://www.kansascity.com/2010/05/07...k=omni_popular

Kansas City takes down ash trees before arrival of destructive bug

Quote:
A section of one of Kansas City’s oldest boulevards looks almost new again — in the sense that it is lacking in stately shade trees.
Quote:
That was just a taste of things to come. More than 40,000 ash trees line Kansas City streets, about 10 percent of the total of all street trees. When the invasive insect arrives — officials are certain it will — the city will have to move more aggressively to take down as many of them as it can.
http://www.coloradoan.com/article/20...TOMERSERVICE02
Quote:
What happens if the Poudre River watershed, which Fort Collins relies on for part of its drinking water supply, is scorched by a catastrophic wildfire fed by dead trees killed by bark beetles?
With the city's Poudre River water supply threatened by wildfire, dead tree removal, falling trees and even large volumes of decaying pine needles, Fort Collins water officials are scrambling for answers.
Quote:
The Forest Service estimates that a staggering 100,000 trees per day could soon begin falling across the beetle-ravaged areas of Northern Colorado and southern Wyoming.

It's not all bad
http://www.mercurynews.com/business-...nclick_check=1
Quote:
FORT COLLINS, Colo. — Colorado State University is getting ready to test a Mountain View company's technology that converts trees killed by bark beetles into fuel for cars.

CSU's Engines and Energy Conversion Lab will measure the power and pollution from the fuel developed by Cobalt Technologies Inc. of Mountain View, Calif.

Cobalt's process turns lodge pole pines into butanol. Ethanol, a more common biofuel, usually uses corn or other foot crops.
Not a pretty picture
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Default Re: Dead Trees

http://www.wyomingnews.com/articles/...l_05-05-10.txt

Quote:
CHEYENNE -- Although Saratoga is in the middle of 3.6 million acres of beetle-killed pines, a key obstacle to reopening a sawmill there is the lack of finances to access these wood supplies.
Quote:
But market conditions and bankers' reluctance to lend mean timber companies have no money to address the urgent need to remove dead trees.
http://www.wisconsinrapidstribune.co...ring-wildfires
Quote:
Rome conducted a community fire protection assessment, and one of the officials' recommendations was to remove combustible debris from around homes, Frantz said. As a result, town leaders created an ordinance that will require property owners to keep their land free from dead trees and brush.
http://www.thedenverchannel.com/news...75/detail.html

Quote:
DENVER -- You may see a "Forest Closed" sign when you go to visit your favorite camping spot this summer, and you can put all the blame on the pine beetles.

The beetles have destroyed 3.5 million acres of lodge pole pines in Colorado and Wyoming, up from 2.6 million last year. The U.S. Forest Service said up to 100,000 dead trees could fall each day for the next 10 years.
Forrest Fires, water security, closed camping grounds. It is not just the US
http://www.sciencealert.com.au/news/20100505-20926.html
Quote:
The slow death of one of Australia's iconic wetlands is causing dramatic upheavals in its bird populations, with species from surrounding farmland moving in to replace many small woodland birds as they lose their habitat, a new study has found.

Their loss is adding to the widespread decline of woodland birds as a result of land-clearing and also reveals how regulation of rivers and diversion of water are having serious unintended consequences for bird communities, say researchers at the UNSW Australian Rivers and Wetlands Centre (ARWC).
Quote:
"When you stand in a forest of dead trees, you get a stark view of the impact of our water policies on these systems," says one of the researchers, Alice Blackwood. "The entire habitat is changing.
Do we remove the dead trees of leave them in place
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coarse_woody_debris
Quote:
CWD as a source of recycled materials not only provides the nutrients for the regeneration of many plant species in the form of carbon constituents necessary for new plant life but it also serves as the microhabitats for many plant and animal species. Colonising organisms that live on the remains of cambium and sapwood of dead trees aid decomposition and attract predators that prey on them and so continue the chain of metabolising the biomass.
It would seem that there is not one single answer that applies in all cases.
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Unread 05-09-2010
sinimod sinimod is offline
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Default Re: Dead Trees

http://www.emagazine.com/view/?892

Battling the Bark Beetle
As Global Warming Rises, So Do Tree-Killing Infestations



Quote:
Scientists attribute the epidemic not only to the mismanagement of forests, where crowded trees compete for light and nutrients, weakening their defenses against insects, but also to global warming. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports that the average temperature in Anchorage has increased 3.9 degrees Fahrenheit over the last century, and that by 2100, temperatures in Alaska could increase by five degrees in spring, summer and fall, and by 10 degrees in winter.
Quote:
Along with beetle infestations come forest fires. Michael Fastabend, of the Kenai Borough’s Spruce Bark Beetle Mitigation Office, says that as dead trees drop needles and limbs, fuel and tinder accumulate on the ground, making conditions ripe for a fire. The EPA says the increase in forest fires due to beetle outbreaks and global warming “is of particular concern for wildlife species that make extensive use of mature and old-growth forests, such as martens, fishers and caribou.
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Default Re: Dead Trees

And here I was leading to how no one was blaming global warming.
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sinimod sinimod is offline
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Default Re: Dead Trees

Quote:
Originally Posted by 776281 View Post
And here I was leading to how no one was blaming global warming.
Oops! Sorry Tony. But I agree with you to the extent that far too few make the connection between what's happening to the trees and the change in climate.
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Default Re: Dead Trees

Ok I have done some articles from the popular press, now the Science Magazines.
http://www.newscientist.com/article/...estern-us.html
Tree deaths double across western US
Quote:
The majestic old trees of the western US are disappearing twice as fast as they were three decades ago, and climate change is most likely to blame, say scientists.

Philip van Mantgem of the US Geological Survey and colleagues collected data from 76 plots on the west coast – from California up to British Columbia, Canada – and in Idaho, Arizona and Colorado. These are plots without any direct human management, so any tree loss is not due to logging.
Quote:
We may only be talking about an annual tree mortality changing from 1% a year to 2% a year, an extra tree here and there," says Mark Harmon, a forest ecologist at Oregon State University in Corvallis, who participated in the study. "But over time a lot of small numbers can add up."
Quote:
Warming can cause a lot of changes," says van Mantgem. "It could [increase evaporation] in these stands and effectively dry them out, and it could make things that chew on trees much happier – things like bark beetles and fungi."
http://www.newscientist.com/article/...s-forests.html
Climate change is killing US forests
21 September 2007 by Bob Holmes
Magazine issue 2622
Quote:
In the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, climate change is subtly eroding the health of pine and fir trees. The effect could be a portent of severe tree die-offs to come.

Ecologists have been tracking the fate of more than 21,000 individual trees since 1983 as part of a project to study forest ecology at different elevations in the Californian mountains
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases...0729132117.htm
Large Trees Declining In Yosemite National Park, U.S.
ScienceDaily (Aug. 3, 2009)
Quote:
Large trees have declined in Yosemite National Park during the 20th century, and warmer climate conditions may play a role.
Quote:
The number of large-diameter trees in the park declined 24 percent between the 1930s and 1990s. U.S. Geological Survey and University of Washington scientists compared the earliest records of large-diameter trees densities from 1932–1936 to the most recent records from 1988–1999.
Quote:
Scientists also found a shift to fire-intolerant trees in some forests that had not experienced fires for nearly a century. In these areas, trees changed from fire-tolerant ponderosa pines to fire-intolerant white fir and incense cedar. In burned areas, however, pines remained dominant.

“We should be aware that more frequent and severe wildfires are possible in Yosemite because of the recent shift to fire-intolerant trees in unburned areas and warmer climates bring drier conditions,” said van Wagtendonk.
This one is a little bit of a surprise
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases...0112121940.htm
Northern Forests Do Not Benefit from Lengthening Growing Season, Study Finds
ScienceDaily (Jan. 13, 2010)
Quote:
Forests in northern areas are stunted, verging on the edge of survival. It has been anticipated that climate change improves their growth conditions. A study published in Forest Ecology and Management journal shows that due to their genetic characteristics trees are unable to properly benefit from the lengthening growing season.
Quote:
Generally, trees stop growing before the frosts and this cessation of growth has been programmed in their genotype. Therefore, trees are unable to effectively follow the increasing environmental growing season. Instead, they cease growth as dictated by their genotype
Quote:
A question closely related to environmental changes is, whether humans should help the populations to adapt? For forests, possible means of human aid include thinning and planting southern seeds to more northern locations.
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Default Re: Dead Trees

Ok I have done some articles from the popular press, now the Science Magazines.
http://www.newscientist.com/article/...estern-us.html
Tree deaths double across western US
Quote:
The majestic old trees of the western US are disappearing twice as fast as they were three decades ago, and climate change is most likely to blame, say scientists.

Philip van Mantgem of the US Geological Survey and colleagues collected data from 76 plots on the west coast – from California up to British Columbia, Canada – and in Idaho, Arizona and Colorado. These are plots without any direct human management, so any tree loss is not due to logging.
Quote:
We may only be talking about an annual tree mortality changing from 1% a year to 2% a year, an extra tree here and there," says Mark Harmon, a forest ecologist at Oregon State University in Corvallis, who participated in the study. "But over time a lot of small numbers can add up."
Quote:
Warming can cause a lot of changes," says van Mantgem. "It could [increase evaporation] in these stands and effectively dry them out, and it could make things that chew on trees much happier – things like bark beetles and fungi."
http://www.newscientist.com/article/...s-forests.html
Climate change is killing US forests
21 September 2007 by Bob Holmes
Magazine issue 2622
Quote:
In the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, climate change is subtly eroding the health of pine and fir trees. The effect could be a portent of severe tree die-offs to come.

Ecologists have been tracking the fate of more than 21,000 individual trees since 1983 as part of a project to study forest ecology at different elevations in the Californian mountains
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases...0729132117.htm
Large Trees Declining In Yosemite National Park, U.S.
ScienceDaily (Aug. 3, 2009)
Quote:
Large trees have declined in Yosemite National Park during the 20th century, and warmer climate conditions may play a role.
Quote:
The number of large-diameter trees in the park declined 24 percent between the 1930s and 1990s. U.S. Geological Survey and University of Washington scientists compared the earliest records of large-diameter trees densities from 1932–1936 to the most recent records from 1988–1999.
Quote:
Scientists also found a shift to fire-intolerant trees in some forests that had not experienced fires for nearly a century. In these areas, trees changed from fire-tolerant ponderosa pines to fire-intolerant white fir and incense cedar. In burned areas, however, pines remained dominant.

“We should be aware that more frequent and severe wildfires are possible in Yosemite because of the recent shift to fire-intolerant trees in unburned areas and warmer climates bring drier conditions,” said van Wagtendonk.
This one is a little bit of a surprise
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases...0112121940.htm
Northern Forests Do Not Benefit from Lengthening Growing Season, Study Finds
ScienceDaily (Jan. 13, 2010)
Quote:
Forests in northern areas are stunted, verging on the edge of survival. It has been anticipated that climate change improves their growth conditions. A study published in Forest Ecology and Management journal shows that due to their genetic characteristics trees are unable to properly benefit from the lengthening growing season.
Quote:
Generally, trees stop growing before the frosts and this cessation of growth has been programmed in their genotype. Therefore, trees are unable to effectively follow the increasing environmental growing season. Instead, they cease growth as dictated by their genotype
Quote:
A question closely related to environmental changes is, whether humans should help the populations to adapt? For forests, possible means of human aid include thinning and planting southern seeds to more northern locations.
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Default Re: Dead Trees

I had expected to find some reference to the vulnerability of monocultures, tree plantations.

http://www.ibiblio.org/london/agricu.../msg00074.html
http://www.wrm.org.uy/plantations/21...009/index.html
http://www.globaljusticeecology.org/...ions.php?ID=64

Are commentaries on how tree plantations should net be considered forrests.

And this article says monocultures are less susceptible
http://www.springerlink.com/content/q526tj013u265466/
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Last edited by 776281; 05-09-2010 at 08:23 PM.
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Unread 05-30-2010
wibble wibble is offline
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Default Re: Dead Trees

Time for a new sig line:

"Even if someone like you cares a whole awful lot,
Nothing is going to get better. It's not."
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These aren't the addresses you're looking for to order copies of the book as gifts for others:
What's the Worst That Could Happen? - Amazon US
What's the worst that could happen? - Amazon UK
Move along, move along...
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Unread 06-01-2010
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Default Re: Dead Trees

Quote:
Time for a new sig line:

"Even if someone like you cares a whole awful lot,
Nothing is going to get better. It's not."
That is why I am the Rabid Doomsayer on Climate Progress or as I said on You Tube "We are so screwed"
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Default Re: Dead Trees

http://climatesignals.org/2010/06/ne...-region-warms/
Quote:
Spring did not come for the oaks of Martha’s Vineyard.

For three years, the residents here watched a stunning outbreak of caterpillars that stripped an oak tree bare in a week, then wafted on gossamer threads to another.

◦In the denuded branches, scientists see a fingerprint of climate change – and a pattern of things to come.
Quote:
Most trees recovered in the first year; fewer survived the second. But as the bugs struck again in late 2007, an accomplice drought hit the weakened trees, leaving the island now with swaths of stark, barren and lifeless branches.
Quote:
The northward spread is being kept in check by cold winters. As winters warm, which is what is projected, that all falls apart,” said Wyatt Oswald, an assistant professor of science at Emerson college who is studying the hemlocks. “At some point, climate change will allow all these hemlock to be wiped out.”
Cankerworm always been there but now a huge problem.
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Unread 09-12-2010
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Default Re: Dead Trees

Warming leads to more pine beetles, leads to dead trees which leads to a greater fire risk - right? After all we have more dead trees and more wild fires.

Apparently not. Dead trees are not more fire prone. The needles are particularly combustible and when they fall off the tree is actually a little less combustible. Rather counter intuitive.

Oh well fire bad: no? I am wrong again.

Quote:
Renkin agrees with the assessment. "Disturbances like insect outbreaks and fire are recognized to be integral to the health of the forests," he said, "and it has taken ecologists most of this century to realize as much. Yet when these disturbances occur, our emotional psyche leads us to say the forests are 'unhealthy.' Bugs and fires are neither good nor bad, they just are."
http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/fea...tles-fire.html

Have a watch of the video too.
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Default Re: Dead Trees

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/28/sc...s.html?_r=2&hp
Quote:
GREAT BASIN NATIONAL PARK, Nev. — For millenniums, the twisted, wind-scoured bristlecone pines that grow at the roof of western North America have survived everything nature could throw at them, from bitter cold to lightning to increased solar radiation.
........

Now, however, scientists say these ancient trees may soon meet their match in the form of a one-two punch, from white pine blister rust, an Asian fungus that came to the United States from Asia, via Europe, a century ago, and the native pine bark beetle, which is in the midst of a virulent outbreak bolstered by warming in the high-elevation West.
Quote:
“So warmer temperatures,” Dr. Lanner said, “especially in the presence of drought, would work against the tree.”
Survived for 4,000 years and now under threat.
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Default Re: Dead Trees

http://www.realclimate.org/index.php...10/seeing-red/

Real Climate takes on the issue of dead trees, as always a complicated analysis. But real situations are often complicated.
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Default Re: Dead Trees

Wow, that is complex!

Welcome back, Tony -- it's been a while!
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Default Re: Dead Trees

The Amazon rainforests covered about 5.4 million km^2 in 2001, approximately 87% of their original extent (Soares-Filho et al, 2006). As much as a quarter of the world’s terrestrial species resides there and about 15% of the global terrestrial photosynthesis takes place there. It consists of old-growth rainforests that store approximately 120 petagrams (Pg) of carbon in their biomass (There is approximately 1.1 billion tons in 1 petagram [10^15 grams = 1 quadrillion grams]). Through photosynthesis and respiration these forests process 18 Pg of carbon annually, more than twice the rate of anthropogenic fuel emissions (Phillips et al., 2009). Evaporation and condensation over the Amazon are engines of the global atmospheric circulation, having downstream effects on precipitation across South America and the Northern Hemisphere. Amazonian forests have been an important and continuous part of earth system functioning since the Cretaceous Period (Malhi et al 2010). Because the Amazon rainforests are responsible for so much of the world’s biospheric activity and respiration of CO2, relatively small changes in Amazon forest dynamics have the potential to substantially affect the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and thus the rate of climate change itself (Phillips et al., 2009; Cook et al., 2010).


Although droughts occurring in 1926, 1983, and 1998 were related to El Niños, the extreme 1 in 100 year droughts of 2005 and this year were not. These droughts were driven by elevated tropical North Atlantic sea surface temperatures, which affected the southern two-thirds of Amazonia through reduced precipitation and higher than average temperatures (Phillips et al., 2009). The warmer seas caused modification of the Hadley circulation causing reduced moisture transport into the Amazon basin (Zeng et al., 2006). According to model projections by Cook et al. (2010), the core of the Amazon is projected to remain stable as rainfall there is projected to increase. However, the periphery, notably the southern edge of the Amazon and further south in central Brazil, are in danger of drying out and could experience a significant dieback (Cook et al., 2010).

As sea surface temperatures of the Northern Atlantic continue to warm, we can expect more devastating droughts in the Amazon rainforests. Deforestation at current rates could eliminate 40% of the forest cover by 2050, without accounting for drought (Soares-Filho et al, 2006). When coupled with the dramatically increased rate of severe droughts in the region, the area of deforestation could significantly increase that percentage, seriously decreasing the biosphere’s ability to absorb CO2, having major consequences in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 in the future.
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Last edited by sinimod; 12-13-2010 at 08:45 AM.
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Unread 12-26-2010
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Default Re: Dead Trees

http://www.npr.org/2010/12/26/126107...hitebark-pines

Quote:
The Whitebark pine trees in the high-elevation areas of America's Northern Rockies have stood for centuries. But these formerly lush evergreen forests are disappearing at an alarmingly fast rate; what remains are eerie stands of red and gray snags.
Quote:
The trees only grow at altitudes higher than 8,500 feet above sea level.
Quote:
In a nearby stand of whitebark, the woodpeckers are busy with all the dead trees. But for other wildlife, the fast die-off is life-changing — especially for grizzly bears. If this were early autumn, they would be keeping us company up on this steep slope.
Add whitebark pines to the list.
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Unread 03-25-2011
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Default Re: Dead Trees

The threat to trees is not just insects and climate direct
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases...0325111853.htm
Kudzu Vines Spreading North from US Southeast With Warming Climate
ScienceDaily (Mar. 25, 2011)
Quote:
Kudzu, the plant scourge of the U.S. Southeast. The long tendrils of this woody vine, or liana, are on the move north with a warming climate.
Quote:
But kudzu may be no match for the lianas of the tropics, scientists have found. Data from sites in eight studies show that lianas are overgrowing trees in every instance.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases...0517172302.htm
Quote:
Kudzu, an invasive vine that is spreading across the southeastern United States and northward, is a major contributor to large-scale increases of the pollutant surface ozone, according to a study published the week of May 17 in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Might be a bigger problem than we realize
If only it were edible.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases...0826110122.htm
Quote:
An excessive amount of glucose in the blood is linked to both diabetes and obesity. Wyss says puerarin seems to regulate glucose by steering it to places where it is beneficial
Quote:
Scientists have been seeking natural substances that can treat the metabolic syndrome. The new study evaluated kudzu root extracts, which contain healthful substances called isoflavones. People in China and Japan long have used kudzu supplements as a health food.
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gaiasdaughter gaiasdaughter is offline
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Default Re: Dead Trees

Quote:
If only it were edible.
Actually, it is edible, is useful as animal fodder, and the fibers can be used as well:
Quote:
Every part of the kudzu plant can be utilized. The nutritious leaves are high in vitamins C and A, make an excellent animal fodder and can be eaten by humans steamed, boiled, deep-fried, pickled, or raw when harvested in areas that have not been sprayed with herbicides. Kudzu leaves are also used as green manure crops or to generate biomass for compost piles to improve agricultural land. The flowers of the kudzu vine are an excellent honey source and can be infused to concoct a subtly flavorful tea. Kudzu vines can be woven into baskets and furniture. Fibers derived from the vine can be used to make both paper and cloth. The most economically valued structure of kudzu is the root which is renowned in Asia for its culinary, nutritional, and medicinal properties. The root is rich in a valuable starch that can be eaten steamed or boiled, or turned into a powder or cream for medicinal purposes. Kudzu powder or kudzu root tea is used to treat a wide array of ailments such as inflammation, hangovers, sexual apathy, indigestion, respiratory disorders, headaches, sinus troubles, muscle stiffness, kidney trouble, breast-feeding complications, and skin rashes.
I would never recommend planting kudzu, but using what is already there only makes sense. Unfortunately, we live in a culture that left common sense behind some time ago . . .
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Default Re: Dead Trees

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases...0902151649.htm
Firewood Movement Leading Cause of Oak Infestation in San Diego County, Researchers Find
ScienceDaily (Sep. 2, 2011)
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A catastrophic infestation of the goldspotted oak borer, which has killed more than 80,000 oak trees in San Diego County in the last decade, might be contained by controlling the movement of oak firewood from that region,
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"This may be the biggest oak mortality event since the Pleistocene (12,000 years ago)," said Tom Scott, a natural resource specialist. "If we can keep firewood from moving out of the region, we may be able to stop one of the biggest invasive pests to reach California in a long time."
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Outbreaks have been found 20 miles from the infestation area, implicating firewood as the most likely reason for the beetle infestation leap-frogging miles of healthy oak woodlands to end up in places like La Jolla. In contrast, communities that harvest their own trees for firewood have remained relatively beetle-free, even as adjacent areas suffer unprecedented rates of oak mortality. Both examples support the growing conviction that the movement of infested firewood is the primary means by which the beetles are spreading, Scott said.
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California's coast live oaks, black oaks and canyon live oaks seem to have no resistance to the goldspotted oak borer and, so far, no natural enemies of the beetle have been found in the state.
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Most of the dead and dying trees are massive, with trunks 5 and 6 feet in diameter, and are 150 to 250 years old. The cost of removing one infested tree next to a home or in a campground can range from $700 to $10,000. The cost of removing dead and dying trees in San Diego County alone could run into the tens of millions of dollars. In Ohio, which has experienced similar losses from the emerald ash borer, several small cities went bankrupt because of tree removal costs associated with that beetle, Scott said.
The Texas drought has not been good for trees either
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